Live-action mass-casualty training and virtual world training: A comparison

Keith T. Shubeck, Scotty Craig, Xiangen Hu

Research output: Contribution to journalConference articlepeer-review

17 Scopus citations


Live-action training simulations with expert facilitators are considered by many to be the gold-standard in training environments. However, these training environments are expensive, provide many logistical challenges, and may not address the individual's learning needs. Fortunately, advances in distance-based learning technologies have provided the foundation for inexpensive and effective learning environments that can simultaneously train and educate students on a much broader scale than live-action training environments. Specifically, intelligent tutoring systems (ITSs) have been proven to be very effective in improving learning outcomes. The Virtual Civilian Aeromedical Evacuation Sustainment Training (VCAEST) interface takes advantage of both of these technologies by enhancing a virtual world with a web-based ITS, AutoTutor LITE (Learning in Interactive Training Environments). AutoTutor LITE acts as a facilitator in the virtual world by providing just-in-time feedback, presenting essential domain knowledge, and by utilizing tutoring dialogues that automatically assess user input. This paper will discuss the results of an experimental evaluation of the VCAEST environment compared to an expert-led live-action training simulation.

Original languageEnglish (US)
Pages (from-to)2096-2100
Number of pages5
JournalProceedings of the Human Factors and Ergonomics Society
StatePublished - 2016
EventHuman Factors and Ergonomics Society 2016 International Annual Meeting, HFES 2016 - Washington, United States
Duration: Sep 19 2016Sep 23 2016

ASJC Scopus subject areas

  • Human Factors and Ergonomics


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