While the synthesis of biaryls has advanced rapidly in the past decades, cross-Ullman couplings of aryl chlorides, the most abundant aryl electrophiles, have remained elusive. Reported here is the first general cross-Ullman coupling of aryl chlorides with aryl triflates. The selectivity challenge associated with coupling an inert electrophile with a reactive one is overcome using a multimetallic strategy with the appropriate choice of additive. Studies demonstrate that LiCl is essential for effective cross-coupling by accelerating the reduction of Ni(II) to Ni(0) and counteracting autoinhibition of reduction at Zn(0) by Zn(II) salts. The modified conditions tolerate a variety of functional groups on either coupling partner (42 examples), and examples include a three-step synthesis of flurbiprofen.
ASJC Scopus subject areas
- Colloid and Surface Chemistry