Learning and Programming in Classifier Systems

Richard K. Belew, Stephanie Forrest

Research output: Contribution to journalArticlepeer-review

17 Scopus citations


Both symbolic and subsymbolic models contribute important insights to our understanding of intelligent systems. Classifier systems are low-level learning systems that are also capable of supporting representations at the symbolic level. In this paper, we explore in detail the issues surrounding the integration of programmed and learned knowledge in classifier-system representations, including comprehensibility, ease of expression, explanation, predictability, robustness, redundancy, stability, and the use of analogical representations. We also examine how these issues speak to the debate between symbolic and subsymbolic paradigms. We discuss several dimensions for examining the tradeoffs between programmed and learned representations, and we propose an optimization model for constructing hybrid systems that combine positive aspects of each paradigm.

Original languageEnglish (US)
Pages (from-to)193-223
Number of pages31
JournalMachine Learning
Issue number2
StatePublished - Oct 1988
Externally publishedYes


  • Subsymbolic representation
  • connectionism
  • default hierarchy
  • inheritance
  • tagging

ASJC Scopus subject areas

  • Software
  • Artificial Intelligence


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