The question of what the relevant entities or units of analysis for studying the dynamics of R&Dare is central not only for adequate characterizations of the system of scientific and technological knowledge production but also for determining the correct focus for evaluation of R&D activities. Typically, R&D performance evaluations have focused not only on the wrong thing but have looked in the wrong place. Most evaluations have been project or program based. Often this focus is misleading. This article presents a "knowledge value" framework as an alternative focus for understanding and evaluating scientific and technical work. This framework consists of two core concepts: the Knowledge Value Collective (KVC) and the Knowledge Value Alliance (KVA). On the basis of the analysis oftwenty-eight case studies of research activities, the authors present a typology of KVAs and conclude that they area better object of evaluation than discipline-based projects.
ASJC Scopus subject areas
- Social Sciences (miscellaneous)
- Sociology and Political Science
- Economics and Econometrics
- Human-Computer Interaction