Ion-Selective Sensors Based on Laser-Induced Graphene for Evaluating Human Hydration Levels Using Urine Samples

Ivan S. Kucherenko, Delaney Sanborn, Bolin Chen, Nate Garland, Michael Serhan, Erica Forzani, Carmen Gomes, Jonathan C. Claussen

Research output: Contribution to journalArticlepeer-review

34 Scopus citations


Complex graphene electrode fabrication protocols including conventional chemical vapor deposition and graphene transfer techniques as well as more recent solution-phase printing and postprint annealing methods have hindered the wide-scale implementation of electrochemical devices including solid-state ion-selective electrodes (ISEs). Herein, a facile graphene ISE fabrication technique that utilizes laser induced graphene (LIG), formed by converting polyimide into graphene by a CO2 laser and functionalization with ammonium ion (NH4+) and potassium ion (K+) ion-selective membranes, is demonstrated. The electrochemical LIG ISEs exhibit a wide sensing range (0.1 × 10−3–150 × 10−3 m for NH4+ and 0.3 × 10−3–150 × 10−3 m for K+) with high stability (minimal drop in signal after 3 months of storage) across a wide pH range (3.5–9.0). The LIG ISEs are also able to monitor the concentrations of NH4+ and K+ in urine samples (29–51% and 17–61% increase for the younger and older patient; respectively, after dehydration induction), which correlate well with conventional hydration status measurements. Hence, these results demonstrate a facile method to perform in-field ion sensing and are the first steps in creating a protocol for quantifying hydration levels through urine testing in human subjects.

Original languageEnglish (US)
Article number1901037
JournalAdvanced Materials Technologies
Issue number6
StatePublished - Jun 1 2020


  • graphene
  • hydration
  • potentiometry
  • solid-contact ion-selective electrode (ISE)
  • urinalysis

ASJC Scopus subject areas

  • General Materials Science
  • Mechanics of Materials
  • Industrial and Manufacturing Engineering


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