Interrelation between Encapsulant Browning and Metallization Degradation: Experiments and Simulation

Fang Li, Abhijit Gopakumar, Sai Ravi Tatapudi, Kristopher O. Davis, Govinda Samy Tamizhmani

Research output: Chapter in Book/Report/Conference proceedingConference contribution


Solar cell simulation has increasingly been used to investigate the field degradation mechanisms of photovoltaic modules. In this study, we investigate the interrelation between encapsulant browning and metallization degradation using various experimental data and solar cell simulation tools. This investigation is based on a bare cell extracted from a field-aged commercial module having encapsulant browning. The experimental data include dark I-V, light I-V, TLM and PL, EL and EDS images. Griddler was used as the primary simulation tool. This work demonstrates that a strong match (within 2.25% deviation) can be established between the simulated data by accounting for spatially resolved resistance parameters (contact resistance and grid line resistance) of metallization and the experimental data obtained in the browned encapsulant region of the solar cell.

Original languageEnglish (US)
Title of host publication2021 IEEE 48th Photovoltaic Specialists Conference, PVSC 2021
PublisherInstitute of Electrical and Electronics Engineers Inc.
Number of pages5
ISBN (Electronic)9781665419222
StatePublished - Jun 20 2021
Event48th IEEE Photovoltaic Specialists Conference, PVSC 2021 - Fort Lauderdale, United States
Duration: Jun 20 2021Jun 25 2021

Publication series

NameConference Record of the IEEE Photovoltaic Specialists Conference
ISSN (Print)0160-8371


Conference48th IEEE Photovoltaic Specialists Conference, PVSC 2021
Country/TerritoryUnited States
CityFort Lauderdale


  • Griddler
  • contact resistance
  • double-diode model
  • encapsulant browning
  • simulation

ASJC Scopus subject areas

  • Control and Systems Engineering
  • Industrial and Manufacturing Engineering
  • Electrical and Electronic Engineering


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