Intercept centering and time coding in latent difference score models

Research output: Contribution to journalArticlepeer-review

12 Scopus citations


Latent difference score (LDS) models combine benefits derived from autoregressive and latent growth curve models allowing for time-dependent influences and systematic change. The specification and descriptions of LDS models include an initial level of ability or trait plus an accumulation of changes. A limitation of this specification is that the intercept is always located at the beginning of the process or observation period. In this article, LDS models are reformulated to allow the intercept to be centered at any time point. Additionally, I describe how the constant change factor can be rescaled to alter its interpretation.

Original languageEnglish (US)
Pages (from-to)137-151
Number of pages15
JournalStructural Equation Modeling
Issue number1
StatePublished - 2012
Externally publishedYes


  • Centering
  • Change
  • Growth
  • Latent difference score
  • Scaling

ASJC Scopus subject areas

  • General Decision Sciences
  • Modeling and Simulation
  • Sociology and Political Science
  • Economics, Econometrics and Finance(all)


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