The current study was undertaken to examine the impact that obesity and non-insulin-dependent diabetes mellitus (NIDDM) have on the ability of glucose to stimulate its own uptake and oxidation in muscle. Euglycemic and hyperglycemic clamp experiments were performed with somatostatin infusions so that insulin could be replaced to basal levels or to physiological hyperinsulinemia. Arteriovenous leg balance methods were used to measure the pathways of leg muscle glucose uptake, oxidation, and storage. Percutaneous biopsies of the vastus lateralis muscle were taken to determine the pyruvate dehydrogenase complex or glycogen synthase activities. During basal insulin replacement, obese compared with lean nondiabetic subjects had higher values for glucose uptake, respiratory quotient, and glucose oxidation (all P < 0.05) and a higher proportion of leg energy expenditure derived from glucose. Obese NIDD patients had a greater reliance on fat calories than lean diabetics during basal insulin replacement (P < 0.05). Hyperinsulinemia increased leg glucose metabolism (P < 0.001) in all groups, but obese NIDD patients were significantly more insulin resistant. Hyperglycemia in NIDDM compensated for insulin resistance to the extent that rates of glucose metabolism were the same as those for nondiabetics studied at euglyemia. When nondiabetics were studied at hyperglycemia matched to the diabetics, the insulin resistance was still readily apparent.
|American Journal of Physiology - Endocrinology and Metabolism
|Published - 1996
- non-insulin-dependent diabetes mellitus
- substrate oxidation
ASJC Scopus subject areas
- General Medicine