Imiquimod and its analogs belonging to a class of imidazoquinolinamines, activate immune system via cytokine induction, and have antitumor and antiviral effects in mammals. In this study, we showed that a related analog, designated S-28828, induced interferon (IFN) and macrophage activating cytokine(s) (macrophage activating factor, MAF) in chickens in vivo, ex vivo, and in vitro. IFN and MAF were detectable in the serum of chickens following oral administration. Serum IFN levels were the highest at 2 b after treatment. Although there was no detectable IFN in sera of chickens at 8, 24, and 48 h after treatment, high levels of interferon inducible enzyme, 2'-5' oligoadenylate synthase (2'5'OAS) were present at these time points. In vitro and ex vivo studies showed that spleen cells, bone marrow (BM) cells, and peripheral blood leukocytes (PBL) were capable of producing IFN and MAF, although spleen cells produced the highest levels. Our results suggest that S-28828 administered orally may be a useful immunoenhancing and antiviral agent for chickens.
ASJC Scopus subject areas
- Cell Biology