In-Situ Observation of the Formation of MnS during Solidification of High Sulphur Steels

Martin Emiliano Valdez, Yan Wang, Seetharaman Sridhar

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34 Scopus citations


A Confocal Scanning Laser Microscope equipped with a gold image furnace was used to directly observe the precipitation of MnS during solidification of high sulphur steels under isothermal conditions in the temperature region 1440 to 1480°C on the free surface of the steel melt. For the case of Al-killed steels, below 1480°C MnS particles were found to precipitate with Fe forming simultaneously around them. This MnS containing structure continued to grow rapidly (264 μm/s) as a surface film. The film gradually changed, as the level of S in the melt decreased, into a eutectic structure (with lamella spacing of 2 μm) as predicted by thermodynamics. In Si- killed steels there was significantly lower tendency to form MnS both in terms of time until precipitation occurred and growth rate.

Original languageEnglish (US)
Pages (from-to)247-256
Number of pages10
JournalSteel Research International
Issue number4
StatePublished - Apr 2004
Externally publishedYes


  • Direct visualization
  • High-S steel
  • MnS
  • Precipitation
  • Solidification

ASJC Scopus subject areas

  • Condensed Matter Physics
  • Physical and Theoretical Chemistry
  • Metals and Alloys
  • Materials Chemistry


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