Identification of Antibody Biomarker Using High-Density Nucleic Acid Programmable Protein Array

Research output: Chapter in Book/Report/Conference proceedingChapter

2 Scopus citations


A novel protein microarray technology, called high-density nucleic acid programmable protein array (HD-NAPPA), enables the serological screening of thousands of proteins at one time. HD-NAPPA extends the capabilities of NAPPA, which produces protein microarrays on a conventional glass microscope slide. By comparison, HD-NAPPA displays proteins in over 10,000 nanowells etched in a silicon slide. Proteins on HD-NAPPA are expressed in the individual isolated nanowells, via in vitro transcription and translation (IVTT), without any diffusion during incubation. Here we describe the method for antibody biomarker identification using HD-NAPPA, including four main steps: (1) HD-NAPPA array protein expression, (2) primary antibodies (serum/plasma) probing, (3) secondary antibody visualization, and (4) image scanning and data processing.

Original languageEnglish (US)
Title of host publicationMethods in Molecular Biology
PublisherHumana Press Inc.
Number of pages18
StatePublished - 2021

Publication series

NameMethods in Molecular Biology
ISSN (Print)1064-3745
ISSN (Electronic)1940-6029


  • Antibody biomarker discovery
  • Biomarker
  • Nucleic acid programmable protein array
  • Silicon nanowells

ASJC Scopus subject areas

  • Molecular Biology
  • Genetics


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