Hot weather and heat extremes: health risks

Kristie L. Ebi, Anthony Capon, Peter Berry, Carolyn Broderick, Richard de Dear, George Havenith, Yasushi Honda, R. Sari Kovats, Wei Ma, Arunima Malik, Nathan B. Morris, Lars Nybo, Sonia I. Seneviratne, Jennifer Vanos, Ollie Jay

Research output: Contribution to journalReview articlepeer-review

477 Scopus citations


Hot ambient conditions and associated heat stress can increase mortality and morbidity, as well as increase adverse pregnancy outcomes and negatively affect mental health. High heat stress can also reduce physical work capacity and motor-cognitive performances, with consequences for productivity, and increase the risk of occupational health problems. Almost half of the global population and more than 1 billion workers are exposed to high heat episodes and about a third of all exposed workers have negative health effects. However, excess deaths and many heat-related health risks are preventable, with appropriate heat action plans involving behavioural strategies and biophysical solutions. Extreme heat events are becoming permanent features of summer seasons worldwide, causing many excess deaths. Heat-related morbidity and mortality are projected to increase further as climate change progresses, with greater risk associated with higher degrees of global warming. Particularly in tropical regions, increased warming might mean that physiological limits related to heat tolerance (survival) will be reached regularly and more often in coming decades. Climate change is interacting with other trends, such as population growth and ageing, urbanisation, and socioeconomic development, that can either exacerbate or ameliorate heat-related hazards. Urban temperatures are further enhanced by anthropogenic heat from vehicular transport and heat waste from buildings. Although there is some evidence of adaptation to increasing temperatures in high-income countries, projections of a hotter future suggest that without investment in research and risk management actions, heat-related morbidity and mortality are likely to increase.

Original languageEnglish (US)
Pages (from-to)698-708
Number of pages11
JournalThe Lancet
Issue number10301
StatePublished - Aug 21 2021

ASJC Scopus subject areas

  • General Medicine


Dive into the research topics of 'Hot weather and heat extremes: health risks'. Together they form a unique fingerprint.

Cite this