High spatial resolution direct conversion amorphous selenium X-ray detectors with monolithically integrated CMOS readout

Z. Han, A. Mukherjee, A. Albert, A. K. Rumaiz, I. Harding, M. W. Tate, S. M. Gruner, J. Thom-Levy, A. J. Kuczewski, D. P. Siddons, G. A. Carini, J. Stavro, S. Léveillé, D. Vasileska, W. Zhao, A. Goldan

Research output: Contribution to journalArticlepeer-review

3 Scopus citations


Recent progress in the field of micron-scale spatial resolution direct conversion X-ray detectors for high-energy synchrotron light sources serve applications ranging from nondestructive and noninvasive microscopy techniques which provide insight into the structure and morphology of crystals, to medical diagnostic measurement devices. Amorphous selenium (a-Se) as a wide-bandgap thermally evaporated photoconductor exhibits ultra-low thermal generation rates for dark carriers and has been extensively used in X-ray medical imaging. Being an amorphous material, it can further be deposited over large areas at room temperatures and at substantially lower costs as compared to crystalline semiconductors. To address the demands for a high-energy and high spatial resolution X-ray detector for synchrotron light source applications, we have thermally evaporated a-Se on a Mixed-Mode Pixel Array Detector (MM-PAD) Application Specific Integrated Circuit (ASIC). The ASIC format consists of 128 × 128 square pixels each 150 μm on a side. A 200 μm a-Se layer was directly deposited on the ASIC followed by a metal top electrode. The completed detector assembly was tested with 45 kV Ag and 23 kV Cu X-ray tube sources. The detector fabrication, performances, Modulation Transfer Function (MTF) measurements, and simulations are reported.

Original languageEnglish (US)
Article numberP04021
JournalJournal of Instrumentation
Issue number4
StatePublished - Apr 1 2023


  • Materials for solid-state detectors
  • Radiation-hard detectors
  • Solid state detectors
  • X-ray detectors

ASJC Scopus subject areas

  • Instrumentation
  • Mathematical Physics


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