Heterozygote advantage in a finite population: Black color in wolves

Philip W. Hedrick, Daniel R. Stahler, Dick Dekker

Research output: Contribution to journalArticlepeer-review

16 Scopus citations


There is a striking color polymorphism for wolves in the Yellowstone National Park where approximately half the wolves are black. The genetic basis for this polymorphism is known, and fitnesses of the genotypes are estimated. These estimates suggest that there is strong heterozygote advantage but substantial asymmetry in the fitness differences of the 2 homozygotes. Theoretically, such fitnesses in a finite population are thought to reduce genetic variation at least as fast as if there were no selection at all. Because the color polymorphism has remained at about the same frequency for 17 years, about 4 generations, we investigated whether this was consistent with the theoretical predictions. Counter to this general expectation of loss, given the initial frequency of black wolves, the theoretical expectation in this case was found to be that the frequency would only decline slowly over time. For example, if the effective population size is 20, then the expected black allele frequency after 4 generations would be 0.191, somewhat less than the observed value of 0.237. However, nearly 30% of the time the expected frequency is 0.25 or greater, consistent with the contemporary observed frequency. In other words and in contrast to general theoretical predictions, because of the short period of time in evolutionary terms and the relatively weak selection at low frequencies, the observed variation and the predicted theoretical variation are not inconsistent.

Original languageEnglish (US)
Pages (from-to)457-465
Number of pages9
JournalJournal of Heredity
Issue number4
StatePublished - 2014


  • defensin
  • genetic drift
  • heterozygote advantage
  • polymorphism
  • predation

ASJC Scopus subject areas

  • General Medicine


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