Harmonized cross-sectional surveys focused on fluid intake in children, adolescents and adults: The Liq.In7 initiative

Homero Martinez, Isabelle Guelinckx, Jordi Salas-Salvad, Joan Gandy, Stavros A. Kavouras, Luis A. Moreno

Research output: Contribution to journalArticlepeer-review

15 Scopus citations


Objective: To assess the intake of water and all other beverages in children, adolescents and adults. Methods: Three thousand six hundred eleven children (8 ± 2 years), 8,109 adolescents (13 ± 2 years) and 16,276 adults (40 ± 14 years) (47% men) were recruited in 15 cross-sectional surveys (liquid intake across 7 days, Liq.In7 study) and completed a 7-day fluid-specific record to assess total fluid intake (TFI), where TFI was defined as the sum of drinking water and other type of beverages. Results: The median TFI was 1.2, 1.2 and 1.8 liters/day in children, adolescents and adults respectively, with important differences observed between countries. Only 39% of children, 25% of adolescents and 51% of adults met the European Food Safety Authority adequate intake (AI) recommendations of water from fluids. In the surveys of Spain, France, Belgium, Germany, Turkey, Iran, Indonesia and China, water was the major contributor (47-78%) to TFI. In the adult surveys of UK, Poland, Japan and Argentina, hot beverages were the highest contributor to TFI. The fluid intake of children and adolescents in Mexico, Brazil, Argentina and Uruguay was characterized by a contribution of juices and sweet beverages that was as important as the contribution of water to TFI. Conclusion: Given that a relatively high proportion of subjects, especially children and adolescents, failed to meet the recommended AI of water from fluids and that water intake was not the highest contributor to TFI in all countries, undertaking actions to increase water intake are warranted.

Original languageEnglish (US)
Pages (from-to)12-18
Number of pages7
JournalAnnals of Nutrition and Metabolism
Issue number2
StatePublished - Jun 14 2016
Externally publishedYes


  • 7-Day fluid diary
  • Beverages
  • Fluid intake
  • Hydration
  • Liq.in
  • Water

ASJC Scopus subject areas

  • Medicine (miscellaneous)
  • Nutrition and Dietetics


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