Gender differentials in farming efficiency and profits: The case of rice production in the Philippines

Ashok K. Mishra, Aditya R. Khanal, Samarendu Mohanty

Research output: Contribution to journalArticlepeer-review

29 Scopus citations


Women make essential contributions to the agricultural and rural economies in all developing countries. Rural women are involved in a variety of production and farm management activities. In the Philippines women engage more intensively in agricultural work than men. However, Filipino women's actual contribution to food production and the rural economy remains undervalued, if not invisible. Using the average treatment effect and farm-level data from the Philippines, this study investigates the effect of gender on farming efficiency, profits, and costs of rice production. Results indicate that female-headed farm households, despite having limited access to land, have higher values of rice production than their male counterparts. However, female-headed households have higher fixed, seed and labor input costs, consequently earning lower profits. In addition, female-headed farm households have lower irrigation costs. Findings from this study also indicate that women are less efficient in farming, but are more likely to adopt improved seed varieties.

Original languageEnglish (US)
Pages (from-to)461-469
Number of pages9
JournalLand Use Policy
StatePublished - Apr 1 2017


  • Average treatment effect
  • Farming efficiency
  • Female-headed farm households
  • Gender
  • Profits
  • Rice

ASJC Scopus subject areas

  • Forestry
  • Geography, Planning and Development
  • Nature and Landscape Conservation
  • Management, Monitoring, Policy and Law


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