Fruits of Icacinaceae (Tribe Iodeae) from the Late Paleocene of western North America

Kathleen Pigg, Steven R. Manchester, Melanie L. DeVore

Research output: Contribution to journalArticlepeer-review

31 Scopus citations


The Icacinaceae occur pantropically today, but are well represented by fossil fruits of the warm Early Middle Eocene, when tropical plants that currently occupy low latitudes were more widely distributed in higher latitudes. Members of this family are first known in the Late Cretaceous; however, fossil fruits of tribe Iodeae are quite rare before the Eocene. In this paper we describe the first formally recognized Late Paleocene icacinaceous taxa from western North America. We name two new species of Icacinicarya based on anatomically preserved fruits and establish a new genus, Icacinicaryites, for impressions with a strong similarity to Icacinicarya that lack anatomical preservation. These new records from the Almont/Beicegel Creek flora in North Dakota and several localities in Wyoming, Colorado, and Montana complement records known from the Early Eocene of England and document an increased diversity of Iodeae and related forms in the Paleogene of western North America.

Original languageEnglish (US)
Pages (from-to)824-832
Number of pages9
JournalAmerican Journal of Botany
Issue number7
StatePublished - Jul 2008


  • Euasterid
  • Fossil endocarp
  • Icacinaceae
  • Icacinicarya
  • Iodeae
  • North Dakota
  • Paleocene

ASJC Scopus subject areas

  • Ecology, Evolution, Behavior and Systematics
  • Genetics
  • Plant Science


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