FPGA-Based TDC for Single-Photon Intensity Interferometry

Adrian Sinclair, Genady Pilyavsky, Edward Schroeder, Philip Mauskopf

Research output: Contribution to journalArticlepeer-review

4 Scopus citations


A prototype intensity interferometer readout for single-photon detectors is presented as a time-to-digital converter (TDC) implemented on a field-programmable gate array (FPGA). We briefly discuss the history and scientific motivations for the instrument. A comparison is drawn between the use of photomultiplier tubes in linear mode and single-photon avalanche diodes (SPAD) in Geiger mode. Different FPGA-based TDC configurations are discussed. We describe the design and implementation of a four-phase FPGA-based TDC. The paper concludes with the application of the design to investigate SPAD after-pulsing and a description of future work.

Original languageEnglish (US)
Article number1641016
JournalJournal of Astronomical Instrumentation
Issue number4
StatePublished - Dec 1 2016


  • Hanbury Brown and Twiss
  • Time-to-digital converter
  • intensity interferometry

ASJC Scopus subject areas

  • Instrumentation
  • Astronomy and Astrophysics


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