Formation of CaS on Al2O3-CaO inclusions during solidification of steels

Y. Wang, S. Sridhar, M. Valdez

Research output: Contribution to journalArticlepeer-review

95 Scopus citations


In this article, the effect of CaS formation on the evolution of Al2O3-CaO inclusions in low-carbon Al-killed and Ca-treated steel during the solidification process is investigated through high-temperature confocal scanning laser microscopy (CSLM). The inclusions started as mostly liquid-globular inclusions that did not agglomerate with each other on the melt surface but during solidification were seen to change shape into an irregular morphology. The shape change was found to be due to the reaction between the Al2O3-CaO inclusions with the dissolved S and Al in the melt, resulting in the formation of dense CaS shells around the inclusions. The melt composition during solidification, estimated from the observed solid δ-front advance rate, was compared to the thermodynamic limit for CaS precipitation. The observed growth rate of the CaS shell was found to initially increase with decreasing temperature because of the higher, solid δ-front advance rates at lower temperatures, which results in higher rates of S and Al partitioning. Once CaS had precipitated, the inclusions were found to form agglomerates on the melt surface because of fluid flow, initially, and later, the capillary depression.

Original languageEnglish (US)
Pages (from-to)625-632
Number of pages8
JournalMetallurgical and Materials Transactions B: Process Metallurgy and Materials Processing Science
Issue number4
StatePublished - Aug 2002
Externally publishedYes

ASJC Scopus subject areas

  • Condensed Matter Physics
  • Mechanics of Materials
  • Metals and Alloys
  • Materials Chemistry


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