Fluid intake of children, adolescents and adults in Indonesia: results of the 2016 Liq.In7 national cross-sectional survey

P. W. Laksmi, C. Morin, J. Gandy, L. A. Moreno, S. A. Kavouras, H. Martinez, J. Salas-Salvadó, I. Guelinckx

Research output: Contribution to journalArticlepeer-review

20 Scopus citations


Purpose: To report daily total fluid intake (TFI) and fluid types in Indonesia according to age, sex, socio-economic status (SES) and geographic region, and compare TFI with the Indonesian adequate fluid intake (AI) recommendations. Methods: Data were collected in 32 cities over nine regions from children (4–9 years, n = 388), adolescents, (10–17 years, n = 478) and adults (18–65 years, n = 2778) using a fluid intake 7-day record (Liq.In7); socio-economic status was also recorded. The 7-day mean TFIs were compared with the AI of water set by the Ministry of Health of the Republic of Indonesia. Results: Total median fluid intakes for all age groups exceeded 2000 mL/day. At population level, TFI was associated with household income (P < 0.001), education (P < 0.001) and Indonesian geographical regions (P < 0.001). More than 67% of participants met the AI of water from fluids. A higher percentage of children and adolescents met the AI (78 and 80%, respectively), compared with adults (72%). Drinking water was the main contributor to TFI in all age groups (76–81%). Sugar-sweetened beverages (SSB) were consumed by 62% children, 72% adolescents and 61% of adults. An SSB intake ≥ 1 serving per day was observed for 24% children, 41% adolescents and 33% adults. Conclusions: A high percentage of the population drank enough to meet the AI of water from fluids. Water was the most frequently consumed drink; however, many participants consumed at least one serving of SSB per day. This study provides data to help direct targeted intervention programs.

Original languageEnglish (US)
Pages (from-to)89-100
Number of pages12
JournalEuropean Journal of Nutrition
StatePublished - Jun 1 2018
Externally publishedYes


  • Beverages
  • Fluid intake
  • Hydration
  • Indonesia
  • Liq.In
  • Water

ASJC Scopus subject areas

  • Medicine (miscellaneous)
  • Nutrition and Dietetics


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