Factor Structure of the Working Alliance Inventory

Terence J. Tracey, Anna M. Kokotovic

Research output: Contribution to journalArticlepeer-review

1169 Scopus citations


The Working Alliance Inventory (WAI) was completed after the 1st psychotherapy session by 84 university counseling center clients and 15 therapists rating their work with 123 clients. The factor structure of these responses was examined using confirmatory factor analysis. A model with 1 general factor, a model with 3 specific factors, and a bilevel model of the factor structure were examined. The bilevel factor structure, with a General Alliance factor as its primary factor and 3 secondary specific factors, fit the data best. The items most indicative of the 3 specific factors were selected to form a 12-item short form of the WAI.

Original languageEnglish (US)
Pages (from-to)207-210
Number of pages4
JournalPsychological Assessment
Issue number3
StatePublished - Sep 1989
Externally publishedYes

ASJC Scopus subject areas

  • Clinical Psychology
  • Psychiatry and Mental health


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