Facebook usage patterns looking into the mind via the ICAP engagement framework

Quincy Conley, John Sadauskas, Robert Christopherson, Lijia Lin, Hale Ilgaz, Christian Seto, Irfan Kula, Medha Dalal, Robert K. Atkinson

Research output: Contribution to journalArticlepeer-review

1 Scopus citations


This study aimed to establish an accurate baseline for Facebook usage and to investigate its learning potential via biometric perspective. This was explored by asking college students to browse their own Facebook page and peruse the content while wearing a high-fidelity EEG headset to record brainwave activity they experienced. Their actions were then coded using the empirically based Interactive-Constructive-Active-Passive (ICAP) engagement model to identify elements that could potentially be leveraged for learning. Based on these results, Facebook does not seem to make an ideal learning platform, due to higher frustration levels during higher cognitive tasks compared to passively consuming personally relevant non-instructional content. However, it may have more positive impacts on learning as long as initial frustration level is transformed smoothly to engagement and motivation for some learning opportunities and activities.

Original languageEnglish (US)
Pages (from-to)514-526
Number of pages13
JournalBehaviour and Information Technology
Issue number5
StatePublished - 2023


  • Facebook
  • Social media
  • informal learning

ASJC Scopus subject areas

  • Developmental and Educational Psychology
  • Arts and Humanities (miscellaneous)
  • General Social Sciences
  • Human-Computer Interaction


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