Evaluation of D2 and D3 dopamine receptor selective compounds on l-dopa-dependent abnormal involuntary movements in rats

Rakesh Kumar, Lindsay R. Riddle, Suzy A. Griffin, Wenhua Chu, Suwanna Vangveravong, Janet Neisewander, Robert H. Mach, Robert R. Luedtke

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50 Scopus citations


A panel of novel D2 and D3 dopamine receptor selective antagonists, partial agonists and full agonists have been evaluated for the ability to attenuate l-dopa-associated abnormal involuntary movements (AIMs) in 6-hydroxydopamine (6-OHDA) unilaterally lesioned male Sprague Dawley rats, which is an animal model of l-dopa-induced dyskinesia (LID). LID is often observed in patients with Parkinson's Disease following chronic treatment with l-dopa. The intrinsic activity of these dopaminergic compounds was determined using a forskolin-dependent adenylyl cyclase inhibition assay with transfected HEK 293 cells expressing either the human D2Long or D3 dopamine receptor subtype. For the initial experiments the 5-HT1A receptor selective partial agonist buspirone was used to verify our ability to quantitate changes in total AIMs and AIMs minus locomotor scores. Two D2 dopamine receptor selective antagonists, SV 156 and SV 293, were evaluated and found to minimally attenuate AIM scores in these animals. Four members of our WC series of D3 dopamine receptor selective compounds of varying intrinsic activity at the D3 dopamine receptor subtype, WC 10, WC 21, WC 26 and WC 44, were also evaluated and found to attenuate AIM scores in a dose dependent manner. The in vivo efficacy of the compounds increased when they were administered simultaneously with l-dopa, as compared to when the compounds were administered 60 min prior to the l-dopa/benserazide. It was also found that the D3 receptor antagonist WC 10 could inhibit the involuntary movements after they had achieved maximum intensity. Unlike the D1-like dopamine receptor selective agonist SKF 81297 and the D2-like dopamine receptor agonist bromocriptine which can precipitate abnormal involuntary movements in these unilaterally lesioned animals, abnormal involuntary movements were not observed after administration of our D3 receptor selective agonist WC 44. In addition, we evaluated the effect of these four D3 dopamine receptor selective compounds for their effect on a) spontaneous locomotion and b) coordination and agility using a rotarod apparatus. We also used a cylinder test to assess the effect of l-dopa on spontaneous and independent use of each of the rat's forelimbs in the presence or absence of test compound. The results of these studies suggest that substituted phenylpiperazine D3 dopamine receptor selective compounds are potential pharmacotherapeutic agents for the treatment of l-dopa-associated dyskinesia in patients with Parkinson's Disease.

Original languageEnglish (US)
Pages (from-to)956-969
Number of pages14
Issue number6-7
StatePublished - May 2009


  • D3 dopamine receptors
  • Dopamine receptors
  • Dyskinesia
  • Parkinson's Disease
  • l-dopa

ASJC Scopus subject areas

  • Pharmacology
  • Cellular and Molecular Neuroscience


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