Electro-Optic Modulation in Hybrid Metal Halide Perovskites

Yuan Gao, Grant Walters, Ying Qin, Bin Chen, Yimeng Min, Ali Seifitokaldani, Bin Sun, Petar Todorovic, Makhsud I. Saidaminov, Alan Lough, Sefaattin Tongay, Sjoerd Hoogland, Edward H. Sargent

Research output: Contribution to journalArticlepeer-review

42 Scopus citations


Rapid and efficient conversion of electrical signals to optical signals is needed in telecommunications and data network interconnection. The linear electro-optic (EO) effect in noncentrosymmetric materials offers a pathway to such conversion. Conventional inorganic EO materials make on-chip integration challenging, while organic nonlinear molecules suffer from thermodynamic molecular disordering that decreases the EO coefficient of the material. It has been posited that hybrid metal halide perovskites could potentially combine the advantages of inorganic materials (stable crystal orientation) with those of organic materials (solution processing). Here, layered metal halide perovskites are reported and investigated for in-plane birefringence and linear electro-optic response. Phenylmethylammonium lead chloride (PMA 2 PbCl 4 ) crystals are grown that exhibit a noncentrosymmetric space group. Birefringence measurements and Raman spectroscopy confirm optical and structural anisotropy in the material. By applying an electric field on the crystal surface, the linear EO effect in PMA 2 PbCl 4 is reported and its EO coefficient is determined to be 1.40 pm V −1 . This is the first demonstration of this effect in hybrid metal halide perovskites, materials that feature both highly ordered crystalline structures and solution processability. The in-plane birefringence and electro-optic response reveal that layered perovskite crystals could be further explored for potential applications in polarizing optics and EO modulation.

Original languageEnglish (US)
Article number1808336
JournalAdvanced Materials
Issue number16
StatePublished - Apr 19 2019


  • 2D material
  • birefringence
  • electro-optic modulation
  • metal halide perovskite
  • nonlinear optics

ASJC Scopus subject areas

  • General Materials Science
  • Mechanics of Materials
  • Mechanical Engineering


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