Electro-assisted Fenton treatment of ammunition wastewater containing nitramine explosives

Jin Anotai, Piyawat Tanvanit, Sergi Garcia-Segura, Ming Chun Lu

Research output: Contribution to journalArticlepeer-review

25 Scopus citations


The treatment of an actual wastewater from ammunition manufacturing process containing highly hazardous nitramine explosives has been studied by different water treatment technologies based on Fenton's chemistry. The in-situ production of hydroxyl radical as highly oxidizing agent conducted to the overall degradation of the nitramine explosives contained in the effluent samples. The kinetic abatement of octahydro-1,3,5,7-tetranitro-1,3,5,7-tetrazocine (HMX) and hexahydro-1,3,5-trinitro-1,3,5-triazine (RDX) followed the crescent order Fenton = photo-Fenton > electro-assisted Fenton process. The greater performance of the electro-assisted process is justified by the faster regeneration of Fe2+ from the electrochemical reduction and the oxidation contribution of the heterogeneous hydroxyl radical electrogenerated on the dimensional stable anode surface. On the other hand, similar DOC abatements of ca. 60% were attained after 2 h of treatment for all the technologies, being slightly superior for the photo-Fenton process due to the photodecarboxylation of carboxylate–iron complexes. The evaluation of the BOD5 and COD allowed considering the effluent biodegradability enhancement after Fenton's technologies treatment, being feasible their application prior to a biological treatment. From the by-products identification, degradative pathways of the main nitramine pollutants contained in the actual effluent have been proposed.

Original languageEnglish (US)
Pages (from-to)429-436
Number of pages8
JournalProcess Safety and Environmental Protection
StatePublished - 2017
Externally publishedYes


  • Actual effluent
  • Anodic oxidation
  • Photo-Fenton
  • RuO/IrO dimensional stable anodes (DSA)
  • Water treatment technologies
  • electro-Fenton

ASJC Scopus subject areas

  • Environmental Engineering
  • Environmental Chemistry
  • General Chemical Engineering
  • Safety, Risk, Reliability and Quality


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