Effects of sex and menstrual cycle on volume-regulatory responses to 24-h fluid restriction

Gabrielle E.W. Giersch, Abigail T. Colburn, Margaret C. Morrissey, Cody R. Butler, Michaela L. Pruchnicki, Stavros A. Kavouras, Nisha Charkoudian, Douglas J. Casa

Research output: Contribution to journalArticlepeer-review

12 Scopus citations


Reproductive hormones have significant nonreproductive physiological effects, including altering fluid regulation. Our purpose was to explore the impact of sex and menstrual cycle (MC) phase on volume-regulatory responses to 24-h fluid restriction (24-h FR). Participants (men: n = 12, 20 ± 2 yr; women: n = 10, 20 ± 1 yr) were assigned two randomized and counterbalanced fluid prescriptions [Euhy: Euhydrated, urine specific gravity (USG) < 1.020; Dehy: 24-h FR, USG > 1.020]. Men completed both (MEuhy, MDehy), while women completed both in the late-follicular (days 10-13; FDehy, FEuhy) and midluteal (days 18-22; LDehy, LEuhy) phases. We measured body mass, plasma and urine osmolality (Posm, Uosm), urine specific gravity (USG), urine color (Ucol), and serum copeptin; 24-h FR yielded mild dehydration without influence of sex or MC (P > 0.05). Copeptin increased in men following Dehy (pre: 8.2 ± 5.2, post: 15.8 ± 12.6, P = 0.04) but not in women (FDehy pre: 4.3 ± 1.6, post: 10.5 ± 6.9, P = 0.06; LDehy pre: 5.6 ± 3.5, post: 10.4 ± 6.2, P = 0.16). In FDehy, Posm increased following FR (pre: 288 ± 2, post: 292 ± 1, P = 0.03) but not in men (pre: 292 ± 3, post: 293 ± 2, P = 0.46). No MC differences were observed between body mass loss, Posm, Uosm, USG, and copeptin (P > 0.05). These results suggest that volume-regulatory responses to 24-h FR were present in men but not in women, without apparent effects of the menstrual cycle.

Original languageEnglish (US)
Pages (from-to)R560-R565
JournalAmerican Journal of Physiology - Regulatory Integrative and Comparative Physiology
Issue number5
StatePublished - Nov 5 2020


  • Body mass loss
  • Copeptin
  • Estrogen
  • Sex differences

ASJC Scopus subject areas

  • Physiology
  • Physiology (medical)


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