Effects of a Diabetes Prevention Program on Type 2 Diabetes Risk Factors and Quality of Life among Latino Youths with Prediabetes: A Randomized Clinical Trial

Armando Peña, Micah L. Olson, Elva Hooker, Stephanie L. Ayers, Felipe González Castro, Donald L. Patrick, Libby Corral, Elvia Lish, William C. Knowler, Gabriel Q. Shaibi

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13 Scopus citations

Abstract

Importance: Latino youths are disproportionately impacted by prediabetes and type 2 diabetes (T2D). Lifestyle intervention is the first-line approach for preventing or delaying T2D among adults with prediabetes. Objective: To assess the efficacy of a diabetes prevention program among Latino youths aged 12 to 16 years with prediabetes. Design, Setting, and Participants: This 2-group parallel randomized clinical trial with 2:1 randomization assessed a lifestyle intervention against usual care among Latino youths with prediabetes and obesity with 6- and 12-month follow-up. The study was conducted at YMCA facilities in Phoenix, Arizona from May 2016 to March 2020. Intervention: Participants were randomized to lifestyle intervention (INT) or usual care control (UCC). The 6-month INT included 1 d/wk of nutrition and health education and 3 d/wk of physical activity. UCC included 2 visits with a pediatric endocrinologist and a bilingual, bicultural registered dietitian to discuss diabetes risks and healthy lifestyle changes. Main Outcomes and Measures: Insulin sensitivity, glucose tolerance, and weight-specific quality of life (YQOL-W) at 6- and 12-month follow-up. Results: A total of 117 Latino youths (mean [SD] age, 14 [1] years; 47 [40.1%] girls) were included in the analysis. Overall, 79 were randomized to INT and 38 to UCC. At 6 months, the INT led to significant decreases in mean (SE) 2-hour glucose (baseline: 144 [3] mg/dL; 6 months: 132 [3] mg/dL; P =.002) and increases in mean (SE) insulin sensitivity (baseline: 1.9 [0.2]; 6 months: 2.6 [0.3]; P =.001) and YQOL-W (baseline: 75 [2]; 6 months: 80 [2]; P =.006), but these changes were not significantly different from UCC (2-hour glucose: mean difference, -7.2 mg/dL; 95% CI, -19.7 to 5.3 mg/dL; P for interaction =.26; insulin sensitivity: mean difference, 0.1; 95% CI, -0.7 to 0.9; P for interaction =.79; YQOL-W: mean difference, 6.3; 95% CI, -1.1 to 13.7; P for interaction =.10, respectively). Both INT (mean [SE], -15 mg/dL [4.9]; P =.002) and UCC (mean [SE], -15 mg/dL [5.4]; P =.005) had significant 12-month reductions in 2-hour glucose that did not differ significantly from each other (mean difference, -0.3; 95% CI, -14.5 to 14.1 mg/dL; P for interaction =.97). At 12 months, changes in mean (SE) insulin sensitivity in INT (baseline: 1.9 [0.2]; 12 months: 2.3 [0.2]; P =.06) and UCC (baseline: 1.9 [0.3]; 12 months: 2.0 [0.2]; P =.70) were not significantly different (mean difference, 0.3; 95% CI, -0.4 to 1.0; P for interaction =.37). At 12 months, YQOL-W was significantly increased in INT (basline: 75 [2]; 12 months: 82 [2]; P <.001) vs UCC (mean difference, 8.5; 95% CI, 0.8 to 16.2; P for interaction =.03). Conclusions and Relevance: In this randomized clinical trial, both INT and UCC led to similar changes in T2D risk factors among Latino youths with diabetes; however, YQOL-W was improved in INT compared with UCC. Diabetes prevention interventions that are effective in adults also appeared to be effective in high risk youths. Trial Registration: ClinicalTrials.gov Identifier: NCT02615353.

Original languageEnglish (US)
Pages (from-to)E2231196
JournalJAMA network open
DOIs
StateAccepted/In press - 2022

ASJC Scopus subject areas

  • General Medicine

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