Effect of thermal processing on silver contacts for zinc oxide and indium tin oxide

K. Sivaramakrishnan, S. Iyer, N. D. Theodore, Terry Alford

Research output: Chapter in Book/Report/Conference proceedingConference contribution


Silver thin film contacts of varying thickness (25, 45, and 60 nm) were deposited on indium tin oxide (ITO) on silicon and zinc oxide (ZnO) on silicon. The films were annealed in vacuum for 1 hour at different temperatures (300-650°C). The resistivity of the films was determined using four-point-probe measurements. The films underwent an abrupt change in resistivity beyond an onset temperature that varied with thickness. Rutherford backscattering spectrometry measurements suggest agglomeration of the Ag films upon annealing caused the resistivity breakdown. X-ray pole figure analysis reveals that the annealed films took on a preferential 〈111〉 texturing; however, the degree of texturing was significantly higher in Ag on ZnO than on ITO. This observation was accounted for by interface energy minimization. Atomic force microscopy (AFM) measurements revealed an increasing surface roughness of the annealed films with temperature. The resistivity behavior is accounted for by the increasing crystallinity countered by an increasing surface roughness. Average surface roughness obtained from AFM measurements were also used to model the agglomeration of Ag based on Ostwald ripening theory.

Original languageEnglish (US)
Title of host publicationAdvanced Metallization Conference 2009, AMC 2009
Number of pages10
StatePublished - Nov 29 2010
Event26th Advanced Metallization Conference, AMC 2009 - Baltimore, MD, United States
Duration: Oct 13 2009Oct 15 2009

Publication series

NameAdvanced Metallization Conference (AMC)
ISSN (Print)1540-1766


Other26th Advanced Metallization Conference, AMC 2009
Country/TerritoryUnited States
CityBaltimore, MD

ASJC Scopus subject areas

  • Materials Science(all)
  • Industrial and Manufacturing Engineering


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