Effect of alloying elements, water vapor content, and temperature on the oxidation of interstitial-free steels

Z. T. Zhang, I. R. Sohn, F. S. Pettit, G. H. Meier, S. Sridhar

Research output: Contribution to journalArticlepeer-review

14 Scopus citations


The present study is an investigation of the surface and subsurface oxidation of Mn solid-solution-strengthened interstitial-free (IF) steels with the objective of elucidating the surface evolution before coating. Thermogravimetric (TG) analysis was carried out under 95 vol pct Ar + 5 vol pct (H2 + H2O) atmospheres with PH2O/PH2 ranging from 0.01 to 0.13 and temperatures ranging from 800 °C to 843 °C. Post-exposure characterization was carried out through scanning electron microscopy (SEM)/energy-dispersive spectroscopy (EDS), X-ray photoelectron spectroscopy (XPS), and glancing-angle X-ray diffraction (XRD) to study the external and internal oxide evolution. The oxidation proceeds as a combination of the internal and external formation of Mn oxides. Decreasing the PH 2O/PH2 ratios or temperature has the effect of decreasing the amount of oxidation, which is a combination of internal and external oxidation controlled by solid-state oxygen and manganese diffusion, respectively. External oxides are not continuous; they are instead concentrated near the intersection of alloy grain boundaries with the external surface. Internal oxides are concentrated along the grain boundaries. The effects of Sb (0.03 wt pct), B (10 ppm), P (0.04 and 0.08 wt pct), and Si (0.06 to 1.5 wt pct) on the oxidation were investigated. It is found that small amounts of Sb and B have a significant effect on decreasing both the external and internal oxidation, whereas Si and P increase the external and internal oxidation.

Original languageEnglish (US)
Pages (from-to)550-566
Number of pages17
JournalMetallurgical and Materials Transactions B: Process Metallurgy and Materials Processing Science
Issue number4
StatePublished - Aug 2009
Externally publishedYes

ASJC Scopus subject areas

  • Condensed Matter Physics
  • Mechanics of Materials
  • Metals and Alloys
  • Materials Chemistry


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