Dynamics of a predator-prey system with prey subject to allee effects and disease

Yun Kang, Sourav Kumar Sasmal, Amiya Ranjan Bhowmick, Joydev Chattopadhyay

Research output: Contribution to journalArticlepeer-review

54 Scopus citations


In this article, we propose a general predator-prey system where prey is subject to Allee effects and disease with the following unique features: (i) Allee effects built in the reproduction process of prey where infected prey (I- class) has no contribution; (ii) Consuming infected prey would contribute less or negatively to the growth rate of predator (P-class) in comparison to the con- sumption of susceptible prey (S-class). We provide basic dynamical properties for this general model and perform the detailed analysis on a concrete model (SIP-Allee Model) as well as its corresponding model in the absence of Allee effects (SIP-no-Allee Model); we obtain the complete dynamics of both models: (a) SIP-Allee Model may have only one attractor (extinction of all species), two attractors (bi-stability either induced by small values of reproduction number of both disease and predator or induced by competition exclusion), or three attractors (tri-stability); (b) SIP-no-Allee Model may have either one attractor (only S-class survives or the persistence of S and I-class or the persistence of S and P-class) or two attractors (bi-stability with the persistence of S and I-class or the persistence of S and P-class). One of the most interesting findings is that neither models can support the coexistence of all three S, I, P-class. This is caused by the assumption (ii), whose biological implications are that I and P-class are at exploitative competition for S-class whereas I-class cannot be superior and P-class cannot gain signi ficantly from its consumption of I-class. In addition, the comparison study between the dynamics of SIP-Allee Model and SIP-no-Allee Model lead to the following conclusions: 1) In the presence of Allee effects, species are prone to extinction and initial condition plays an important role on the surviving of prey as well as its corresponding predator; 2) In the presence of Allee effects, disease may be able to save prey from the predation-driven extinction and leads to the coexistence of S and I-class while predator can not save the disease-driven extinction. All these findings may have potential applications in conservation biology.

Original languageEnglish (US)
Pages (from-to)877-918
Number of pages42
JournalMathematical Biosciences and Engineering
Issue number4
StatePublished - Aug 2014


  • Allee effect
  • Bi-stability
  • Disease/predation-driven extinction
  • Eco-epidemiological system
  • Functional responses
  • Tri-stability

ASJC Scopus subject areas

  • Modeling and Simulation
  • General Agricultural and Biological Sciences
  • Computational Mathematics
  • Applied Mathematics


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