Dope and Deny: A Comparative Study of News Frames in American and Russian Coverage of American and Russian Athletes

Sada Reed, Jennifer L. Harker

Research output: Contribution to journalArticlepeer-review

1 Scopus citations


This content analysis builds on past studies done on media coverage, rhetorical analyses, and journalistic role enactment by examining American and Russian news publications' (N = 422) coverage of American and Russian doping scandals between 2013 and 2016. This time frame was selected because it was the height of Lance Armstrong and Major League Baseball doping coverage in the United States and the height of Olympic track-and-field doping coverage in Russia. It also fell between the time the World Anti-Doping Agency ratified its third code, which gave the antidoping organization the authority to conduct independent investigations. The study investigates media framing from the midpoint of the scandal, after the sports persona or sports entity denied using performance-enhancing drugs. Whether American and Russian coverage differ in the use of episodic and thematic frames, where blame is placed, and whether episodic or thematic framing predicts blame placement were all examined. Furthermore, the study investigates both nations' coverage of "their own"athletes and of athletes from the other nation and analyzes whether or how the rhetorical posture of denial leads to adversarial journalism as a role enactment in coverage of sport-related scandals.

Original languageEnglish (US)
Pages (from-to)242-254
Number of pages13
JournalInternational Journal of Sport Communication
Issue number3
StatePublished - 2022


  • crisis communication
  • doping
  • framing
  • journalistic role enactment
  • sports

ASJC Scopus subject areas

  • Business and International Management
  • Communication
  • Tourism, Leisure and Hospitality Management


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