'Did you see that, Mom?': Social Looking in Three-Year-Old Boys

Sarah E. Martin, Keith A. Crnic, Jay Belsky

Research output: Contribution to journalArticlepeer-review

1 Scopus citations


This study examined social looking, defined as child-initiated looking to a caregiver's face, in a sample of three-year-old boys and their mothers: 59.6% of boys looked to their mothers at least once over the course of emotion-eliciting puppet show vignettes. Social looking occurred more often during puppet show events that were child-focused and positive in valence. Boys' social looking was related to their concurrent affective state, with more expressions of positive emotion looking associated with more social looks. Patterns of family emotionality predicted children's use of social looking. Specifically, a history of positive family expressiveness was associated with children's less frequent use of social looking, whereas a history of negative family expressiveness was associated with children's more frequent use of social looking.

Original languageEnglish (US)
Pages (from-to)461-476
Number of pages16
JournalSocial Development
Issue number4
StatePublished - 2003
Externally publishedYes


  • Emotional communication
  • Family expressiveness
  • Nonverbal communication
  • Parent-child interaction
  • Social looking

ASJC Scopus subject areas

  • Developmental and Educational Psychology
  • Sociology and Political Science
  • Social Sciences (miscellaneous)


Dive into the research topics of ''Did you see that, Mom?': Social Looking in Three-Year-Old Boys'. Together they form a unique fingerprint.

Cite this