Development of a glottal area index that integrates glottal gap size and open quotient

Gang Chen, Jody Kreiman, Bruce R. Gerratt, Juergen Neubauer, Yen Liang Shue, Abeer Alwan

Research output: Contribution to journalArticlepeer-review

34 Scopus citations


Because voice signals result from vocal fold vibration, perceptually meaningful vibratory measures should quantify those aspects of vibration that correspond to differences in voice quality. In this study, glottal area waveforms were extracted from high-speed videoendoscopy of the vocal folds. Principal component analysis was applied to these waveforms to investigate the factors that vary with voice quality. Results showed that the first principal component derived from tokens without glottal gaps was significantly (p < 0.01) associated with the open quotient (OQ). The alternating-current (AC) measure had a significant effect (p < 0.01) on the first principal component among tokens exhibiting glottal gaps. A measure AC/OQ, defined as the ratio of AC to OQ, was proposed to combine both amplitude and temporal characteristics of the glottal area waveform for both complete and incomplete glottal closures. Analyses of "glide" phonations in which quality varied continuously from breathy to pressed showed that the AC/OQ measure was able to characterize the corresponding continuum of glottal area waveform variation, regardless of the presence or absence of glottal gaps.

Original languageEnglish (US)
Pages (from-to)1656-1666
Number of pages11
JournalJournal of the Acoustical Society of America
Issue number3
StatePublished - Mar 2013
Externally publishedYes

ASJC Scopus subject areas

  • Arts and Humanities (miscellaneous)
  • Acoustics and Ultrasonics


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