Delayed onset of progressive dystonia following subacute 3-nitropropionic acid treatment in Cebus apella monkeys

Stéphane Palfi, Liza Leventhal, Christopher G. Goetz, Philippe Hantraye, Ben Zion Roitberg, Joe Sramek, Marina Emborg, Jeffrey H. Kordower

Research output: Contribution to journalArticlepeer-review

42 Scopus citations


Delayed abnormal movements can be observed in patients with acute neurologic insult after a prolonged period of apparent neurologic stability. To reproduce such a secondary neurologic manifestation in primates, the present experiment investigated whether systemic administration of subacute 3-nitropropionic acid (3NP), a mitochondrial toxin, could induce abnormal movements that were delayed and progressive over time. Four Cebus apella monkeys received systemic 3NP injections until acute neurologic signs manifested. The monkeys were regularly video-recorded and rated for abnormal movements for up to 15 weeks after the cessation of 3NP treatment. Five to 6 weeks after the 3NP treatment, monkeys displayed a significant increase in dyskinesias compared with pretreatment conditions. Over time the chorea attenuated, whereas the dystonic movements increased in intensity and severity which was characterized by a delayed decrease of peak tangential velocity. The intensity of abnormal movements and extent of affected body regions observed in each monkey were consistent with the size of basal ganglia hypersignal as documented by T2 sequence on magnetic resonance imaging. Thus, more severe motor impairments were associated with large magnetic resonance image abnormalities. This novel primate model may be particularly useful for studying the structural changes underlying delayed and progressive manifestations of abnormal movements with the ultimate goal of facilitating the evaluation of novel therapeutic strategies.

Original languageEnglish (US)
Pages (from-to)524-530
Number of pages7
JournalMovement Disorders
Issue number3
StatePublished - 2000
Externally publishedYes


  • Basal ganglia
  • Cebus monkey
  • Chorea
  • Mitochondrial toxin
  • Secondary dystonia

ASJC Scopus subject areas

  • Neurology
  • Clinical Neurology


Dive into the research topics of 'Delayed onset of progressive dystonia following subacute 3-nitropropionic acid treatment in Cebus apella monkeys'. Together they form a unique fingerprint.

Cite this