Current trends and future challenges of electrolytes for sodium-ion batteries

K. Vignarooban, R. Kushagra, A. Elango, P. Badami, B. E. Mellander, X. Xu, T. G. Tucker, Changho Nam, Arunachala Mada Kannan

Research output: Contribution to journalArticlepeer-review

179 Scopus citations


Research and development efforts on sodium-ion batteries are gaining momentum due to their potential to accommodate high energy density coupled with relatively lower cost in comparison with lithium-ion batteries. In order for the sodium-ion batteries to be commercially viable, high performance electrolytes with acceptable ambient temperature ionic conductivity and wider electrochemical stability windows are being developed. A bibliometric analysis of the publications on various types of Na+ ion conducting electrolytes since 1990 shows a total of 200 + publications and reveals an exponential growth in the last few years, due to reasons that the sodium-ion systems promise great potential as the future large scale power sources for variety of applications. This review consolidates the status of liquid (non-aqueous, aqueous and ionic), polymer gel and solid (ceramics, glasses, and solid polymers) electrolytes and discusses their ionic conductivity, thermal characteristics, electrochemical stability and viscosity towards applications in sodium-ion batteries. Among various types available, the non-aqueous solvent based electrolyte is the most promising one in terms of ionic conductivity even though it is flammable.

Original languageEnglish (US)
Pages (from-to)2829-2846
Number of pages18
JournalInternational Journal of Hydrogen Energy
Issue number4
StatePublished - Jan 30 2016


  • Ceramic electrolytes
  • Ionic conductivity
  • Ionic liquids
  • Liquid electrolytes
  • Polymer electrolytes
  • Sodium ion batteries

ASJC Scopus subject areas

  • Renewable Energy, Sustainability and the Environment
  • Fuel Technology
  • Condensed Matter Physics
  • Energy Engineering and Power Technology


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