Crowding and experience-use history: A study of the moderating effect of place attachment among water-based recreationists

Megha Budruk, Sonja A. Wilhem Stanis, Ingrid E. Schneider, Jennifer J. Heisey

    Research output: Contribution to journalArticlepeer-review

    41 Scopus citations


    Effective recreation resource management relies on understanding visitor perceptions and behaviors. Given current and increasing pressures on water resources, understanding crowding evaluations seems important. Beyond crowding, however, variables that possibly relate to or influence crowding are of interest and in particular, place attachment and experience-use history (EUH). As EUH is related to place attachment and likely affects crowding, this study explored the moderating effect of place attachment dimensions on the relationships between EUH and visitor crowding evaluations. Water based recreationists at a U.S. Army Corps of Engineers site were contacted onsite and asked questions related to experience-use history, crowding evaluations, place attachment, and activity participation. Anglers and campers at the site identified similar crowding perceptions and place attachments. Only one of eight models tested revealed a moderating effect. Specifically, place identity moderated the relationship between the total times visited in the past twelve months and expected crowding among anglers. As such, the quest continues to understand the relationship among these important variables.

    Original languageEnglish (US)
    Pages (from-to)528-537
    Number of pages10
    JournalEnvironmental Management
    Issue number4
    StatePublished - Apr 1 2008


    • Crowding
    • Experience-use history
    • Moderating effect
    • Place attachment

    ASJC Scopus subject areas

    • Global and Planetary Change
    • Ecology
    • Pollution


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