Cross-linked glucose oxidase clusters for biofuel cell anode catalysts

Jonathan Dudzik, Wen Chi Chang, Arunachala Mada Kannan, Slawomir Filipek, Sowmya Viswanathan, Pingzuo Li, V. Renugopalakrishnan, Gerald F. Audette

Research output: Contribution to journalArticlepeer-review

17 Scopus citations


The efficient localization of increased levels of active enzymes onto conducting scaffolds is important for the development of enzyme-based biofuel cells. Cross-linked enzyme clusters (CEC) of glucose oxidase (GOx) constrained to functionalized carbon nanotubes (CEC-CNTs) were generated in order to evaluate the potential of using CECs for developing GOx-based bioanodes functioning via direct electron transfer from the GOx active site to the CNT scaffold. CEC-CNTs generated from several weight-to-weight ratios of GOx:CNT were examined for comparable catalytic activity to free GOx into the solution, with CEC-CNTs generated from a 100% GOx solution displaying the greatest enzymatic activity. Scanning transmission electron microscopic analysis of CEC-CNTs generated from 100% GOx to CNT (wt/wt) ratios revealed that CEC clusters of ∼78 μm2 localized to the CNT surface. Electrochemical analysis indicates that the enzyme is engaged in direct electron transfer, and biofuel cells generated using GOx CEC-CNT bioanodes were observed to have a peak power density of ∼180 μW cm-2. These data indicate that the generation of nano-to-micro-sized active enzyme clusters is an attractive option for the design of enzyme-specific biofuel cell powered implantable devices.

Original languageEnglish (US)
Article number035009
Issue number3
StatePublished - Sep 2013

ASJC Scopus subject areas

  • Biotechnology
  • Bioengineering
  • Biochemistry
  • Biomaterials
  • Biomedical Engineering


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