Research on knowledge management (KM) readiness has matured. However, recent organizational structures have emerged which prevent traditional instruments from adequately measuring KM readiness in an organization. For example, service-oriented enterprise (SOE) structure and agile software development techniques are characterized by multiple groups working together with each performing "services" as part of project pattern or process. Each group acts in its own role as a sub-organization with its unique helping patterns and cultures . Traditional instruments which measure aggregate constructs across the entire organization will miss important between-group differences in an SOE that might influence KM readiness. This paper presents a case-based field-study from a large Fortune 500 financial firm transitioning its structure to SOE and considering agile software development methodologies. Survey data was collected along with a series of interviews with key managers and developers. Findings indicate statistically significant differences in KM readiness between groups and the need for alignment.