Content knowledge: Its role, representation, and restructuring in memory development

Michelene T.H. Chi, Stephen J. Ceci

Research output: Contribution to journalArticlepeer-review

200 Scopus citations


This chapter provides a knowledge-based framework that could be useful in interpreting much of the memory development literature of the 1970s and 1980s. The resulting framework was largely composed of a scaffolding of content knowledge of various types. It argues that most of the age differences that were observed in previous studies could be explained in terms of the ways in which content knowledge developed. Thus, the chapter focuses on a reanalysis of these studies almost exclusively in the context of age-related differences in content knowledge. A danger in this approach is that it may create the impression that changes in content knowledge are the sole source of knowledge-based developmental differences in memory. Many other types of knowledge also change: planning knowledge, “meta” knowledge, and procedural skills.

Original languageEnglish (US)
Pages (from-to)91-142
Number of pages52
JournalAdvances in child development and behavior
Issue numberC
StatePublished - Jan 1987
Externally publishedYes

ASJC Scopus subject areas

  • Pediatrics, Perinatology, and Child Health
  • Developmental and Educational Psychology
  • Behavioral Neuroscience


Dive into the research topics of 'Content knowledge: Its role, representation, and restructuring in memory development'. Together they form a unique fingerprint.

Cite this