Constructivism: Principles, paradigms, and integration

Karen R. Harris, Steve Graham

Research output: Contribution to journalArticlepeer-review

50 Scopus citations


The purpose of this special issue of The Journal of Special Education is to bring together thoughtful considerations of the strengths, potential limitations, and issues represented by the constructivist approach for students with disabilities and those at risk for school failure. In this article, we present major principles of constructivism for teaching and learning. Three idealized constructivist paradigms—endogenous constructivism, exogenous constructivism, and dialectical constructivism—are described. Finally, major issues related to constructivism are explored, including the possibility of integrative stances.

Original languageEnglish (US)
Pages (from-to)233-247
Number of pages15
JournalThe Journal of Special Education
Issue number3
StatePublished - Oct 1994
Externally publishedYes

ASJC Scopus subject areas

  • Education
  • Rehabilitation


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