Conical horn: Gain and amplitude patterns

Nafati A. Aboserwal, Constantine Balanis, Craig R. Birtcher

Research output: Contribution to journalArticlepeer-review

12 Scopus citations


The conical horn radiation characteristics (gain, aperture phase distributions, loss factors, and amplitude patterns) are revisited based on the spherical and quadratic aperture phase distributions. Calculations of the conical horn gain, using over the aperture either the dominant TE 11-mode of a circular waveguide or the modal variations of a conical waveguide, are calculated using the aperture phase distribution represented by spherical and quadratic wavefronts. The gains are compared with the classical data by Gray and Schelkunoff, in an attempt to confirm their validity and accuracy and to determine whether they were derived based on spherical or quadratic phase distribution. In addition, more accurate loss factors, to account for amplitude and phase tapering over the conical horn aperture, are derived which improve the conical horn gain. New formulas for the design of optimum gain conical horns, based on the more accurate spherical aperture phase distribution, are derived and reported, and guidelines are provided for their utility.

Original languageEnglish (US)
Article number6492234
Pages (from-to)3427-3433
Number of pages7
JournalIEEE Transactions on Antennas and Propagation
Issue number7
StatePublished - 2013


  • Aperture amplitude and phase tapering
  • conical horn
  • gain
  • geometrical optics
  • loss factor
  • uniform theory of diffraction

ASJC Scopus subject areas

  • Electrical and Electronic Engineering


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