Chemical and structural factors governing transparent conductivity in oxides

B. J. Ingram, G. B. Gonzalez, D. R. Kammler, M. I. Bertoni, T. O. Mason

Research output: Contribution to journalArticlepeer-review

88 Scopus citations


The history, applications, and basic requirements of transparent conducting oxides (TCOs) are reviewed. Four basic families of TCOs are recognized, including n-type oxides with tetrahedrally-coordinated cations (e.g., ZnO), n-type oxides with octahedrally-coordinated cations (e.g., CdO, In 2O3, SnO2, and related binary and ternary compounds), p-type oxides with linearly-coordinated cations (e.g., CuAlO 2, Cu2SrO2, and related compounds), and n-type oxides with cage structures (e.g., 12CaO·7Al2O3). TCO behavior is discussed with attention to structural and chemical factors, especially point defect chemistry, governing carrier generation and transport properties.

Original languageEnglish (US)
Pages (from-to)167-175
Number of pages9
JournalJournal of Electroceramics
Issue number1-3
StatePublished - Jul 2004
Externally publishedYes


  • Electrical conductivity
  • Point defects
  • Transparent conducting oxide (TCO)
  • Transport

ASJC Scopus subject areas

  • Electronic, Optical and Magnetic Materials
  • Ceramics and Composites
  • Condensed Matter Physics
  • Mechanics of Materials
  • Materials Chemistry
  • Electrical and Electronic Engineering


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