Characterization of the bismuth-modified manganese dioxide cathodes in rechargeable alkaline cells

A. M. Kannan, S. Bhavaraju, F. Prado, M. Manivel Raja, A. Manthiram

Research output: Contribution to journalArticlepeer-review

54 Scopus citations


Bismuth-modified manganese dioxide (BMD) cathodes are shown to exhibit good cycling characteristics with a theoretical two-electron capacity in rechargeable alkaline cells. With an aim to understand the discharge-charge mechanisms, the BMD cathodes are characterized by X-ray diffraction, scanning electron microscopy, and wet-chemical analysis at various levels of discharge and charge during the first two cycles and after various numbers of cycles. It is found that a well-ordered, crystalline birnessite MnO2 is formed at the end of first charge, irrespective of the initial form of the manganese oxide. The discharge-charge mechanism involves a reversible conversion of birnessite MnO2 to MnOOH to Mn(OH)2 in the subsequent cycles. Wet-chemical analyses demonstrates for the first time that the discharge/charge process in rechargeable alkaline cells involves a reversible dissolution/incorporation of K+ ions from/into the cathode lattice into/from the electrolyte. The incorporation of the K+ ions into the lattice appears to stabilize a well-ordered birnessite structure during charge.

Original languageEnglish (US)
Pages (from-to)A483-A492
JournalJournal of the Electrochemical Society
Issue number4
StatePublished - Apr 2002
Externally publishedYes

ASJC Scopus subject areas

  • Electronic, Optical and Magnetic Materials
  • Condensed Matter Physics
  • Materials Chemistry
  • Surfaces, Coatings and Films
  • Electrochemistry
  • Renewable Energy, Sustainability and the Environment


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