Characterization of encapsulated solar cells by x-ray topography

Xiaodong Meng, Michael Stuckelberger, Laura Ding, Bradley West, April Jeffries, Mariana Bertoni

Research output: Chapter in Book/Report/Conference proceedingConference contribution

4 Scopus citations


Solar panel's reliability studies focus mainly on the properties of the encapsulating such as gel content and transmittance, while ignoring the impact of encapsulation process on the solar cells themselves. The harsh lamination conditions apply high temperature and pressure on the wafers, which can induce increased stress, deformation and defects. The investigation of solar cells sealed inside modules calls for a non-destructive method. In this paper, we demonstrate that transmission X-ray topography (XRT) can be used as an accurate method to evaluate bending feature of encapsulated wafers and present in detail the experimental methods from capturing diffraction data to the data analysis.

Original languageEnglish (US)
Title of host publication2016 IEEE 43rd Photovoltaic Specialists Conference, PVSC 2016
PublisherInstitute of Electrical and Electronics Engineers Inc.
Number of pages4
ISBN (Electronic)9781509027248
StatePublished - Nov 18 2016
Event43rd IEEE Photovoltaic Specialists Conference, PVSC 2016 - Portland, United States
Duration: Jun 5 2016Jun 10 2016

Publication series

NameConference Record of the IEEE Photovoltaic Specialists Conference
ISSN (Print)0160-8371


Other43rd IEEE Photovoltaic Specialists Conference, PVSC 2016
Country/TerritoryUnited States


  • Diffraction
  • Lamination
  • Reliability
  • Silicon
  • Solar cell
  • X-ray topography

ASJC Scopus subject areas

  • Control and Systems Engineering
  • Industrial and Manufacturing Engineering
  • Electrical and Electronic Engineering


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