Bladder surface dose modeling in prostate cancer radiotherapy: An analysis of motion-induced variations and the cumulative dose across the treatment

Yi Lao, Minsong Cao, Yingli Yang, Amar U. Kishan, Wensha Yang, Yalin Wang, Ke Sheng

Research output: Contribution to journalArticlepeer-review

2 Scopus citations


Purpose: To introduce a novel surface-based dose mapping method to improve quantitative bladder dosimetric assessment in prostate cancer (PC) radiotherapy. Methods: Based on the planning and daily pre and postfraction MRIs of 12 PC patients, bladder surface models (SMs) were generated on manually delineated contours and regionally aligned via surface-based registration. Subsequently, bladder surface dose models (SDMs) were created using face-wise dose sampling. To determine the bladder intrafractional and interfractional motion and dose variation, we performed a pose analysis between pre and postfraction bladder SMs, as well as surface mapping for fractional SMs. Discrepancies between the received dose, accumulated from daily SDMs, and the planned dose were then assessed on the corresponding SDMs. Complementary to the surface dose mapping, dose surface histogram (DSH)-based comparisons were also performed. Results: The intrafraction pose analysis revealed a significant (p < 0.05) bladder expansion, as well as an anterior/superior drift during the treatment. The intrafraction motion substantially altered dose to mid-bladder body, but not the bladder surface areas distal to or contiguous with the target. A similar pattern of dose variations was also detected by interfraction comparisons. With surface registration to the common SM, the cumulative bladder dose significantly differs from the planned dose. The discrepancy is evident in the mid-posterior range that corresponds to a mid- to high-dose region. The received DSH significantly differs from the planned DSH after permutation correction (p = 0.0122), while the overall surface-based comparison after multiple comparison correction is nonsignificant (p = 0.0800). Conclusions: We developed a novel surface-based intra and interdose mapping framework applied to a unique daily MR dataset for image-guided radiotherapy. The framework identified significant intrafraction bladder positional changes, localized the intra and interfraction variations, and quantified planned versus received dose differences on the bladder surface. The result indicates the importance of adopting the motion-integrated bladder SDM for bladder dose management.

Original languageEnglish (US)
Pages (from-to)8024-8036
Number of pages13
JournalMedical physics
Issue number12
StatePublished - Dec 2021


  • bladder motions
  • prostate cancer
  • surface dose model
  • surface-based registration

ASJC Scopus subject areas

  • Biophysics
  • Radiology Nuclear Medicine and imaging


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