Bilingualism and multilingualism

Katie A. Bernstein, Laura Hamman-Ortiz

Research output: Chapter in Book/Report/Conference proceedingChapter

1 Scopus citations


In this chapter, we present an overview of bi/multilingualism, focusing on the ways in which bi/multilingualism has been understood, researched, and taught. We begin with historical perspectives, including the transdisciplinary “turns” of the past several decades: the social turn, the practice turn, the multilingual turn, and the trans- turn. We next present approaches to researching bi/multilingualism, divided into three central areas of scholarship - psychological, linguistic, and anthropological and sociolinguistic - and we lay out key contributions of each. Thirdly, we outline bi/multilingual approaches to education, highlighting distinctions between programme types and contrasts with non-bilingual approaches to language teaching. We review key outcomes and current debates in bi/multilingual education. Finally, we discuss the role of translation in bi/multilingual learning, both as a practice in which many bi/multilingual children engage at home and as a useful pedagogical tool in the bi/multilingual classroom. We conclude with a brief recapitulation of the theories and research covered in the chapter and consider emerging areas of scholarship.

Original languageEnglish (US)
Title of host publicationThe Routledge Handbook of Translation and Education
PublisherTaylor and Francis
Number of pages18
ISBN (Electronic)9781000739947
ISBN (Print)9780815368434
StatePublished - Dec 6 2019

ASJC Scopus subject areas

  • General Social Sciences
  • General Arts and Humanities


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