Atomic and electronic structure of the ferroelectric BaTiO 3/Ge(001) interface

Kurt D. Fredrickson, Patrick Ponath, Agham B. Posadas, Martha McCartney, Toshihiro Aoki, David Smith, Alexander A. Demkov

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37 Scopus citations


In this study, we demonstrate the epitaxial growth of BaTiO3 on Ge(001) by molecular beam epitaxy using a thin Zintl template buffer layer. A combination of density functional theory, atomic-resolution electron microscopy and in situ photoemission spectroscopy is used to investigate the electronic properties and atomic structure of the BaTiO3/Ge interface. Aberration-corrected scanning transmission electron micrographs reveal that the Ge(001) 2 × 1 surface reconstruction remains intact during the subsequent BaTiO3 growth, thereby enabling a choice to be made between several theoretically predicted interface structures. The measured valence band offset of 2.7 eV matches well with the theoretical value of 2.5 eV based on the model structure for an in-plane-polarized interface. The agreement between the calculated and measured band offsets, which are highly sensitive to the detailed atomic arrangement, indicates that the most likely BaTiO3/Ge(001) interface structure has been identified.

Original languageEnglish (US)
Article number242908
JournalApplied Physics Letters
Issue number24
StatePublished - Jun 16 2014

ASJC Scopus subject areas

  • Physics and Astronomy (miscellaneous)


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