Assessing Variability in Toxicity Testing of PV Modules

Govindasamy Tamizhmani, Stephanie Shaw, Cara Libby, Adit Patankar, Bulent Bicer

Research output: Chapter in Book/Report/Conference proceedingConference contribution

3 Scopus citations


The present work is a continuation of a research study published at the IEEE PVSC 2018. Last year we investigated crystalline silicon (c-Si) photovoltaic (PV) module toxicity testing results using the Toxicity Characteristics Leaching Procedure (TCLP) method for four different mechanical sample removal approaches: coring, cell cut, strip cut and hybrid. Our previous results showed considerable variability, in particular with the amount of lead in the module, due to differences between these sample removal approaches. In the present work, use of a nonmechanical sample removal approach using a waterjet machine has been explored. Twenty-four samples were extracted by waterjet from twelve PV modules - three different manufacturers and four modules per manufacturer. Each of the test samples was tested with the TCLP method by two independent testing laboratories. This paper reports that the variability of the TCLP test results can be significantly reduced using the waterjet method as compared to the previously reported mechanical methods.

Original languageEnglish (US)
Title of host publication2019 IEEE 46th Photovoltaic Specialists Conference, PVSC 2019
PublisherInstitute of Electrical and Electronics Engineers Inc.
Number of pages7
ISBN (Electronic)9781728104942
StatePublished - Jun 2019
Event46th IEEE Photovoltaic Specialists Conference, PVSC 2019 - Chicago, United States
Duration: Jun 16 2019Jun 21 2019

Publication series

NameConference Record of the IEEE Photovoltaic Specialists Conference
ISSN (Print)0160-8371


Conference46th IEEE Photovoltaic Specialists Conference, PVSC 2019
Country/TerritoryUnited States


  • Coring
  • Crystalline Silicon
  • Hazardous waste
  • Landfill
  • Lead
  • PV modules recycling
  • Photovoltaic Modules
  • Toxicity Characteristics Leaching Procedure
  • Variability
  • Waterjet

ASJC Scopus subject areas

  • Control and Systems Engineering
  • Industrial and Manufacturing Engineering
  • Electrical and Electronic Engineering


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