Assessing teacher, classroom, and school effects, including fiscal effects

Allan Odden, Geoffrey Borman, Mark Fermanich

Research output: Contribution to journalArticlepeer-review

51 Scopus citations


In this article, we argue that too much previous research has tended to assess the effects of student, classroom, and school variables in isolation from other variables and has often used statistical techniques that ignored the nested nature of the 3 classes of factors. We then argue that a more educationally oriented framework should be used to assess the effects of various student, classroom/teacher, and school variables on student learning, particularly student learning gains, and we identify several variables within each class of factors that research so far has identified. In the article, we suggest some standard hierarchical linear modeling models that could be used to conduct analyses that do account for the nested nature of all variables.

Original languageEnglish (US)
Pages (from-to)4-32
Number of pages29
JournalPeabody Journal of Education
Issue number4
StatePublished - Oct 2004
Externally publishedYes

ASJC Scopus subject areas

  • Education
  • Developmental and Educational Psychology


Dive into the research topics of 'Assessing teacher, classroom, and school effects, including fiscal effects'. Together they form a unique fingerprint.

Cite this