Animated agents and learning: Does the type of verbal feedback they provide matter?

Lijia Lin, Robert Atkinson, Robert M. Christopherson, Stacey S. Joseph, Caroline J. Harrison

Research output: Contribution to journalArticlepeer-review

75 Scopus citations


The current study was conducted to investigate the effects of an animated agent's presence and different types of feedback on learning, motivation and cognitive load in a multimedia-learning environment designed to teach science content. Participants were 135 college students randomly assigned to one of four experimental conditions formed by a 2 × 2 factorial design with agent presence as one factor (agent vs. no-agent) and type of verbal feedback it provided as the other factor (simple feedback vs. elaborate feedback). Results revealed that participants who learned with the animated agent that delivered elaborate feedback had significantly higher scores on a learning measure compared to participants who learned with an agent that provided simple feedback. The results are interpreted from both social agency and cognitive load theoretical perspectives.

Original languageEnglish (US)
Pages (from-to)239-249
Number of pages11
JournalComputers and Education
StatePublished - May 20 2013


  • Architectures for educational technology
  • Human-computer interface
  • Interactive learning environments
  • Multimedia/hypermedia systems
  • Teaching/learning strategies
  • system

ASJC Scopus subject areas

  • Computer Science(all)
  • Education


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